Jundishapur Journal of Chronic Disease Care

Published by: Kowsar

Levetiracetam (Keppra): Evidence-Based Polypharmacy in Two Patients With Epilepsy

Zahra Tolou-Ghamari 1 , *
Author Information
1 Isfahan Urology and Kidney Transplantation Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
Article information
  • Jundishapur Journal of Chronic Disease Care: April 01, 2016, 5 (2); e32053
  • Published Online: April 2, 2016
  • Article Type: Case Report
  • Received: August 2, 2015
  • Revised: August 20, 2015
  • Accepted: September 25, 2015
  • DOI: 10.17795/jjcdc-32053

To Cite: Tolou-Ghamari Z. Levetiracetam (Keppra): Evidence-Based Polypharmacy in Two Patients With Epilepsy, Jundishapur J Chronic Dis Care. 2016 ; 5(2):e32053. doi: 10.17795/jjcdc-32053.

Copyright © 2016, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Introduction
2. Case Presentation
3. Discussion
  • 1. Abou-Khalil B. Levetiracetam in the treatment of epilepsy. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008; 4(3): 507-23[PubMed]
  • 2. Tolou Ghamari Z, Mehavari Habibabadi J, Palizban A. Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy of Epilepsy. Arc Neur J. 2014; 2(2)[DOI]
  • 3. Tolou-Ghamari Z. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) polypharmacy could lead to buried pharmacokinetic interactions due to CYP450. Drug Metab Lett. 2012; 6(3): 207-12[PubMed]
  • 4. Tolou-Ghamari Z, Zare M, Habibabadi JM, Najafi MR. A quick review of carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in epilepsy from 1953 to 2012. J Res Med Sci. 2013; 18-5[PubMed]
  • 5. Tolou-Ghamari Z, Zare M, Habibabadi JM, Najafi MR. Antiepileptic drugs: a consideration of clinical and biochemical outcome in patients with epilepsy. Int J Prev Med. 2013; 4-7[PubMed]
  • 6. Tolou-Ghamari Z, Najafi MR, Habibabadi JM, Zare M. Preliminarily Analysis of Carbamazepine (CBZ) C0 in Patients Visited Isfahan Epileptic Clinics. Int J Prev Med. 2013; 4-6[PubMed]
  • 7. Kashipazha D, Mohammadiany Nejad SA, Sadr F, Tarahomi S, Sadr S. Comparison of Levetiracetam With Sodium Valproate in Controlling Seizure in Patients Suffering From Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy. Jentashapir Health Res J. 5(4)[DOI]
  • 8. Johannessen SI, Landmark CJ. Antiepileptic drug interactions - principles and clinical implications. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2010; 8(3): 254-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Walia KS, Khan EA, Ko DH, Raza SS, Khan YN. Side effects of antiepileptics--a review. Pain Pract. 2004; 4(3): 194-203[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Guberman A. Monotherapy or polytherapy for epilepsy? Can J Neurol Sci. 1998; 25(4)-8[PubMed]
  • 11. French JA, Faught E. Rational polytherapy. Epilepsia. 2009; 50 Suppl 8: 63-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Lynch BA, Lambeng N, Nocka K, Kensel-Hammes P, Bajjalieh SM, Matagne A, et al. The synaptic vesicle protein SV2A is the binding site for the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004; 101(26): 9861-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Vogl C, Mochida S, Wolff C, Whalley BJ, Stephens GJ. The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A ligand levetiracetam inhibits presynaptic Ca2+ channels through an intracellular pathway. Mol Pharmacol. 2012; 82(2): 199-208[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Rogawski MA. Diverse mechanisms of antiepileptic drugs in the development pipeline. Epilepsy Res. 2006; 69(3): 273-94[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Chaluvadi S, Chiang S, Tran L, Goldsmith CE, Friedman DE. Clinical experience with generic levetiracetam in people with epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2011; 52(4): 810-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Nowack A, Malarkey EB, Yao J, Bleckert A, Hill J, Bajjalieh SM. Levetiracetam reverses synaptic deficits produced by overexpression of SV2A. PLoS One. 2011; 6(12)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Ratnaraj N, Doheny HC, Patsalos PN. A micromethod for the determination of the new antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (ucb LO59) in serum or plasma by high performance liquid chromatography. Ther Drug Monit. 1996; 18(2): 154-7[PubMed]
  • 18. Gambardella A, Labate A, Colosimo E, Ambrosio R, Quattrone A. Monotherapy for partial epilepsy: focus on levetiracetam. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008; 4(1): 33-8[PubMed]
  • 19. Clinical Epilepsy, Pediatrics. 2005; 46: 142–67
  • 20. Manimekalai K, Visakan B, Salwe KJ, Murugesan S. Evaluation of Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs on Serum Lipid Profile among Young Adults with Epilepsy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pondicherry. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014; 8(8)-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Roh SY, Jang HS, Jeong EH, Kim BS, Sunwoo MK. Valproic Acid-induced Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy Promoted by Levetiracetam. J Epilepsy Res. 2014; 4(2): 82-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Suchopar J, Prokes M. [Polypharmacy and drug interactions]. Vnitr Lek. 2011; 57(9): 755-9[PubMed]
  • 23. Givon L, Porter S, Padmanabhan B, Goren J, Cohen PA. Levetiracetam, seizures, and suicidality. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2011; 19(1): 47-55[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Lo BW, Kyu HH, Jichici D, Upton AM, Akl EA, Meade MO. Meta-analysis of randomized trials on first line and adjunctive levetiracetam. Can J Neurol Sci. 2011; 38(3): 475-86[PubMed]
  • 25. Panda S, Joshi SS. Paradoxical seizures and status epilepticus with newer antiepileptic drugs. Neurol India. 2011; 59(3): 479-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Kramer MA, Cash SS. Epilepsy as a disorder of cortical network organization. Neuroscientist. 2012; 18(4): 360-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Benedetti MS. Enzyme induction and inhibition by new antiepileptic drugs: a review of human studies. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2000; 14(4): 301-19[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments